In this post, I take a look at the current state of Node.js package managers and how you can choose between them.

Package management explained

Your Node.js project will likely use code from various npm packages. Rather than adding a package manually, we use a package manager to handle the process for us. The manager adds the dependency to the project's package.json file, along with a version value. It installs the package inside the project's node_modules directory. The package might in turn have its own package dependencies that the manager will need to install as well.

A particular package might get included multiple times. This could be both as a direct dependency and as a dependency of a dependency, potentially multiple times. The specified versions of this package might be the same or they might be different. The package manager needs to make sense of all this and decide exactly which version or versions of the package to install, and where within the node_modules directory to install them.

Traditionally, Node.js package managers have used a process called hoisting to reduce nesting in the node_modules directory. This involves installing dependencies of dependencies at the top level where they can, flattening the node_modules directory structure.

However, hoisting can be problematic. At runtime, Node.js searches for each imported file, including looking in the project's node_modules directory. But Node.js does not restrict which packages you can import. For example, it does not check that the package is included as a dependency in the project's package.json file. Thus it is possible to import a file from a dependency of a dependency, one that has been hoisted. It would not be obvious that you are doing this, because the import statement would not be for a nested path. Relying on an undeclared dependency is risky because you do not control the version used and the package could be removed in an update.

Ultimately, each package manager will have a particular algorithm for creating the package dependency tree, and for deciding which versions to install and where to install them. Furthermore, this algorithm might differ between different versions of the package manager. This makes it important that everyone on your team is using the same version of your chosen manager.

The available package managers

There are four popular package managers available for the Node.js ecosystem:


This is the original package manager. Because of this it is likely to be supported by any tools and services that rely on a package manager. This could be a code analyser service or a tool for publishing a new version of a package to The developers have continued to add features in response to competition from other package managers. The package lock file was added in version 5, and workspaces support was added in version 7.

So why should you not just chose npm? There are several reasons for using an alternative:

  • Performance, in particular faster install times.
  • A different dependency resolution algorithm.
  • An alternative way of storing the package files, to reduce the size of the node_modules directory and the number of files that it contains.
  • Enforcing that each package, including your own project, explicitly declares all of its dependencies.
  • Enforcing that everyone on your team is using the same version of your chosen package manager.
  • Unique features, such as plugins or 'zero installs' support.

Yarn Classic

Yarn Classic was release in 2016 to fix some of the shortcomings with npm at the time. It introduced workspaces and included security and performance improvements. It had a better algorithm for building the package dependency tree and introduced a file (yarn.lock) for saving that tree and the exact package versions used in your project.

Today it is well supported by build tools and services. However, development of Yarn Classic has been frozen and it is now in maintenance mode only. The developers decided to make fundamental changes and the result was Yarn Berry.

Yarn Berry

Yarn Berry is a complete reworking of Yarn Classic. It can be used either in PnP (Plug 'n' Play) mode or in non-PnP mode.

As described earlier, the node_modules directory can be problematic. It is often enormous and highly nested. Every project has its own node_modules directory containing its own copy of each package that it depends upon. There is also nothing to stop your project or any of its dependencies accessing other packages that they have not explicitly declared as dependencies.

With Yarn Berry PnP, there is no node_modules directory. Instead it saves each dependency as a single zipped file within a .yarn/cache directory. It then hooks into the Node.js filesystem APIs so that requests for files within the node_modules directory get resolved from the contents of the zipped files. Since the size of those zipped files is much less than the node_modules equivalents, they can be committed to git for 'zero installs' support. You also get the very nice benefit of not needing to run yarn install each time you change branch with git.

However, the PnP mode can make some tools and services unusable. For example, here is a list of tools that do not support PnP mode. There are also package maintainers that do not want to support Yarn Berry at all. I recently tried out various tools in both strict and loose versions of PnP mode. Some of these broke, including docz and storybook-builder-vite. For my current requirements, PnP mode is not an option.

For such scenarios, Yarn Berry can be run in non-PnP mode. The node_modules directory is restored — with all of its weight — and there is no strict checking of dependencies. This means that you lose out on these important features. Nevertheless, there are benefits regardless of whether you are in PnP mode or not. Yarn has always had a reputation of being performant. And the particular version of Yarn Berry used is added to your project, guaranteeing consistency throughout your team.


pnpm is largely the work of a single developer: Zoltan Kochan. Like Yarn Berry, it also tackles the problems of the node_modules directory but it takes a different approach. It is very fast in operation compared to the other package managers.

pnpm always saves your package dependencies to a single location on your computer. Each project still has a node_modules directory, but it now only consists of symbolic links (symlinks) and hardlinks. The physical package tree for your project is contained within a .pnpm subdirectory in the node_modules directory. This does not contain the actual package files but instead contains hardlinks to the shared package files. This saves significant disk space on developer machines since all projects using a particular version of a particular package link to the same single copy.

To allow Node.js to access your project's package files, pnpm adds a symlink at the top level of the node_modules directory for each of your project's declared dependencies. This links to the corresponding hardlink in the .pnpm subdirectory. Thus pnpm does not by default hoist any packages to the root of the node_modules directory. This prevents your project from using code from packages that it does not declare as dependencies. To learn more about how pnpm organises the node_modules directory, please see this explanation.

The downsides of pnpm are that it is probably the least supported of the package managers included here. For example, Storybook does not support pnpm at the time of writing. The lack of hoisting will be a problem for some tools and services. There are possible workarounds in the form of configuration options for hoisting dependencies inside the node_modules directory. These might fix issues with packages using undeclared dependencies.

Choosing a package manager

So, which package manager should you use?

Firstly, I believe that Yarn Classic should be excluded because development of it has effectively ended.

The most compelling options are the two package managers that provide a better solution for the problems of the node_modules directory: Yarn Berry in PnP mode, and pnpm. However, it might not be possible for you to use one of these. The tools and services you are using might not support them.

If using Yarn Berry PnP or pnpm is not possible then the choice is between npm or Yarn Berry non-PnP. npm is going to be the most widely supported package manager, and that could be your most important consideration. Alternatively, you might be guided by performance. The pnpm website includes performance benchmarks for pnpm, Yarn Berry (PnP and non-PnP), and npm. One reason for choosing Yarn Berry non-PnP over npm would be its faster install command execution time on a CI server. (The benchmark to look at for this scenario is the one titled "with lockfile".) Yarn Berry also has the advantage of ensuring the whole team is using the same version of the tool.

A final consideration is that it is perfectly possible to use a particular package manager but then change your mind later. It is also straightforward to start with Yarn Berry in PnP mode but then switch to non-PnP mode if you encounter problems.


Nowadays the package managers for the Node.js ecosystem have a reasonable degree of feature parity, particularly regarding workspace support. However, there are other considerations to take into account, including a better solution for the node_modules directory, checking of dependency declarations, and performance. Exactly which package manager you chose to use will depend on your own particular circumstances and concerns.


  • 2021-12-20 Initial version
  • 2021-12-24 Beefed up the entire post
  • 2021-12-26 Improved the pnpm section and hoisting explanation

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